32 - Avoidant Personality Disorder - Sensitive, Vigilant and Socially Anxious

This week, Two Shrinks is leaving behind cluster B personality disorders and launching into cluster C, taking a long look at Avoidant Personality Disorder. We’ll chat about the people who seem shy, quiet and invisible, hanging out on the the fringes of social interactions. Continuing our PD series, we’ll take you through diagnosis, theories and treatment. As always, we wrap up with things we came across - Hunter discloses he has been binging on a Survivor podcast (Oz survivor). and ponders the effects of watching reality tv on aggression? Then they discloses Are Amy’s phantom vibrations normal?

Join us next time for Dependent PD!

Avoidant PD material from:
Personality Disorders in Modern Life, 2nd Edn. Millon & colleagues
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edn (DSM-5)

Things we came across:

Oz Survivor podcast - http://australiansurvivor.libsyn.com/website
Post-reality tv watching aggression - http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2014-33476-001
Phantom vibrations - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563212000799

31 - Forensic psychology with Liz Daff : working in prisons, working with anti-social personality disorder and psychopathy.

31 - Finishing up our mini-series on Anti-Social Personality Disorder and psychopaths we thought we’d talk to our colleague Liz Daff about working as a forensic psychologist. That is, a psychologist who works in prisons or forensic settings with people convicted of crimes or about to go to trial. This interview was so interesting and gripping. It is for anyone fascinated by crime shows (Midsomers Murders anyone?) or wondered what it’d be like to work with someone convicted of a serious crime. Liz is completing her clinical and forensic training through Swinburne University and gives a great description of some of the challenges working in this area.

We of course finish of with ‘Things we came across’ which Liz joins us for, with a discussion on the lack of evidence base for parachutes, Amy talks about anti social personality disorder and Survivor (the tv show), Hunter meanwhile talks about the psychological processes behind why his honey, lemon, cloves and ginger drink helps with head colds (ie. the placebo effect).


Survivor (Amy) : https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15205436.2011.567346

Parachutes (Liz) : https://www.bmj.com/content/327/7429/1459

Placebo effect (Hunter) : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886917304191


30 - More about psychopaths. Children with psychopathic traits, successful people who have psychopathic traits, & treatment of psychopathy

This episode we decided to continue on from pod 29 and chat more about psychopathy. Amy takes us through a discussion of how psychopathy does and does not manifest itself in children and adolescent. Spoiler – it does and doesn’t.

Hunter then talks (at length) about ‘successful’ or non-incarcerated psychopaths, think nasty politicians, corporate CEO, that kind of thing. 

At about 47 minutes we jump to a discussion about treatment of psychopaths and anti-social personality disorder which is really interesting.

For TWCA Hunter ponders the number of Subway stores by country and talks about white-coat hypertension, whilst Amy finds comfort in knowing chimps fake laugh to improve social standing.


The Handbook of Psychopathy – Christopher J. Patrick (Ed).
Psychopathy in children - http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2006-01001-020

Succcessful psychopaths - http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2006-01001-023



Subway stores: https://www.subway.com/en-US/ExploreOurWorld

White coat hypertension and personality: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186529

Aping expressions : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355640

29 - Anti-Social Personality Disorder, Psychopaths and Sociopaths - description and theory

This week on Two Shrinks Pod we're looking at the darker side of human nature. Hunter & Amy chat about the diagnosis of Anti-Social Personality Disorder, psychopaths and sociopaths. Lump Hannibal Lector and The Grinch (pre-heart growth) into the same camp and get nerdy over theory. We lighten things up at the end with a chat about the (perfectly normal) brain reasons Amy sees faces in things and blame Hunter's snacking on social influence. Join us next time for a chat about ASPD treatment!


Background reading:

Personality Disorders in Modern Life, 2nd Edn. Millon & colleagues
ASPD vs Psychopathy: Bartol & Bartol
Psychopathy & ASPD in an Australian sample, Ogloff et al - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15228932.2016.1177281
Reoffending in Australian prison samples, the role of Psychopathy & APD -  http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0306624X16653193
Gender differences in ASPD - http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fa0031681


The Grinch - https://www.psychologyinaction.org/psychology-in-action-1/2013/10/31/personality-disorders-in-the-media 
Gary Gilmore – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gary_Gilmore
Harold Shipman - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Shipman


Seeing Jesus in toast - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010945214000288
Channing tater - https://www.buzzfeed.com/lyapalater/potatoes-that-look-like-channing-tatum?utm_term=.hblmZYEev#.gpopYQezZ 
The Fitzroy Diaries – http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/features/the-fitzroy-diaries/
Chocolate ripple biscuits
Social snacking -  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29154607

28 - Schema therapy for Narcissistic Personality Disorder - with Chris Hayes

In this week's pod we chat with Chris Hayes, clinical psychologist and advanced schema therapist. Chris talks us through common schemas and modes in Narcissistic Personality Disorder, therapeutic approaches and the challenges of this work. He also answers our varied questions about schema therapy for personality issues. As always, we finish up with things we came across - Hunter chats about emotional expressions and the World Cup and Amy confirms that clowns are creepy. Was anyone questioning that? 


Recommended by Chris:

Scema therapy in practice - https://www.wiley.com/en-us/Schema+Therapy+in+Practice%3A+An+Introductory+Guide+to+the+Schema+Mode+Approach-p-9781119962854

Schema therapy: A practitioners guide - https://www.guilford.com/books/Schema-Therapy/Young-Klosko-Weishaar/9781593853723/reviews 



World cup player portraits and world cup success https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0167487017307286

The Haka

No such thing as a fish – Episode 221 World Cup

World cup road trip - https://itunes.apple.com/au/podcast/world-cup-road-trip/id1395793369?mt=2

Creepy clowns



27 - Narcissistic Personality Disorder - His Majesty, The Baby

This week we take a look at Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) and answer our own burning questions: What is it like interacting with someone with NPD? How can you tell the difference between traits and diagnosable NPD? What are the theories about how it develops? And of course, which politicians meet criteria and what are the ethics of labelling them as such?

As always, we wrap up with Things We Came Across – Amy chats about why healthy food tastes better if you've prepared it yourself and Hunter chuckles about scanning salmon. Join us next time for an interview with a psychologist using schema therapy with clients with NPD!

NPD background reading - Diagnosis, theories on development and interpersonal experiences:

Personality Disorders in Modern Life, 2nd Edn. Millon & colleagues
Clinician's Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Personality Disorders. Fox 

Alliance and the therapeutic relationship thanks to the work of Elsa Ronningstam and colleagues:

Alliance Building & NPD: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jclp.21898
Empathy & NPD: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2014-04665-001
Recent research in NPD: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40473-016-0060-y
Self-esteem & emotion regulation in NPD: https://bpded.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40479-017-0054-8


Trump & NPD: https://www.statnews.com/2017/09/06/donald-trump-mental-illness-diagnosis/
Trump's bills: http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2017/dec/29/donald-trump/has-donald-trump-signed-more-bills-anyone-no/ 
Kevin Rudd: https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/grandiose-narcissist-the-secret-diagnosis-that-helped-bring-down-kevin-rudd-20130909-2tfum.html


Does self-prepared food taste better? https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26690640
Scanning Salmon: https://www.wired.com/2009/09/fmrisalmon/
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is dead, but like Elvis, there will still be citings: https://www.jpsychores.com/article/S0022-3999(12)00093-1/abstract


26 - Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder

We're back after a short break with a discussion about DBT for BPD. Hunter takes us through the key components of Dialectical Behavior Therapy which is used to treat Borderline Personality Disorder and we chat about the processes and challenges of this work. The pod goes into the weeds of this treatment so to speak - it is a long conversation but stick with it as it is some really interesting parts. It should be of interest to anyone who is interested in learning about therapy, should be good for psychologists who don't know much about DBT and for anyone with loved ones who have BPD. The episode finishes up with a chat about music through the seasons and Hunter using research to rationalise his holiday butter consumption. Join us next time as we continue to talk about cluster B personality disorders.

Hunter's articles:

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (Linehan) - chapter in Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders : https://www.guilford.com/books/Clinical-Handbook-of-Psychological-Disorders/David-Barlow/9781462513260/reviews

Things we came across:

Seasonal music tastes - http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2017-11225-001

Holiday weight gain - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917053

The stupidly small podcast : https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/stupidly-small/id942390274?mt=2


25 - Borderline Personality Disorder - I hate you, don't leave me

This ep we are talking about Borderline Personality Disorder - one of the most interesting, challenging and controversial personality disorders. We chat about the symptoms, aetiology, controversies and issues in therapy when working with someone who has BPD. it was recorded at the same time as the last ep (Histrionic PD) and so it's essentially part two of our discussion about Histrionic and Borderline PDs so in the the reverse of last week Amy will be doing most of the talking. Hunter wraps this week up discussing some research on knitting - what's driving us to pick up the yarn? Join us next week for a discussion about BPD treatment.


Borderline Personality Disorder articles

DSM 5 diagnostic criteria - https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/dsm

Developmental Trauma Disorder - www.traumacenter.org/products/pdf_files/preprint_dev_trauma_disorder.pdf

Aetiology = https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29182951 

I hate you don't leave me - A book on understanding BPD : https://psychcentral.com/lib/i-hate-you-dont-leave-me-understanding-the-borderline-personality/

Things we came across:

Knitting to prevent osteoarthritis - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29444664

Motivations to knit among young women - http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0887302X14564619?journalCode=ctra



24 - Histrionic Personality Disorder - Theatrical, Vivacious, Tempestuous

This week we got a little carried away talking about cluster B personality disorders so instead of discussing two PDs we've split the episode in two and just talk about one. First up, Hunter talks us through Histrionic PD: what are the symptoms, how do clients with this disorder present and what do we know about the theoretical background? Amy wraps it up with a things we came across about aesthetic goosebumps, inspired by the great pod, Every Little Thing. Next week Amy will take us through Borderline Personality Disorder and Hunter will do TWCA. 

Hunter's resources:

General link on HPD https://www.psychologytoday.com/conditions/histrionic-personality-disorder

More specific reading on HPD : Personality Disorders in Modern Life. (2000). Millon & Davis. Wiley. 
If you google the title of this book there seems to be downloadable pdfs of it available at no cost.  

Amy's things we came across:
Aesthetic goosebumps https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232493918_On_Personality_and_Piloerection_Individual_Differences_in_Aesthetic_Chills_and_Other_Unusual_Aesthetic_Experiences

Every little thing - Why does music give us the chills?

Shawshank Redemption Ending

23 - Schizoid, Paranoid & Schizotypal Personality Disorders. The Odd & Eccentric Cluster.

This week we're back from our summer holiday & digging into personality disorders. Join us in the first episode of our mini series on personality disorders. We are starting off with Cluster A personality disorders, namely Schizoid, Paranoid and Schizotypal PDs. This cluster is known as the Odd & Eccentric cluster. We'll chat about the main features of each diagnosis, some theory, what it is like to work with clients who have traits or full blown PDs and the complexity of treatment. As always, we wrap up with things we came across: Amy talks about how a picture of a sun can make us tip more and Hunter is inspired by the Slow Burn podcast to talk about the Martha Mitchell effect.

Amy's articles/resources:

Paranoid Personality Disorder: https://guilfordjournals.com/doi/abs/10.1521/pedi_2012_26_055

Cluster A personality disorders in childhood:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992453/

Clinician's Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Personality Disorders - Daniel Fox


Hunter's articles/resources:

Personality Disorders in Modern Life - Theodore Millon & Roger Davis


Things we came across:

Tipping: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11026416

Martha Mitchell Effect: https://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-16/edition-8/beliefs-about-delusions

Slow burn podcast: http://www.slate.com/articles/slate_plus/watergate.html 

22 - Aviophobia (Fear of Flying): why are so many of us afraid of flying?

To kick off the new year, Hunter and Amy take a quick look at aviophobia. We talk about how a fear of flying develops and the way your sensitivity to body anxiety symptoms influences  fear. To wrap up, Hunter muses over why we (used to) send Christmas cards and Amy rants about the Tooth Fairy's inequitable behaviour. 

We are going to take a few weeks off at the start of January (2018) but will be back with new pods at the end of Jan so check your feed and make sure you follow us on twitter. 


Hunter's article:
Ways of acquiring flying phobia - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26484616

Amy's article:
Anxiety sensitivity- 

Things we came across:
Christmas cards - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26666577
Tooth fairy - https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2017/207/11/tooth-fairy-guilty-favouritism

21 - All I want for Christmas...is subjective well-being & to be crowned king of the bon bons

This week, Two Shrinks Pod is getting ready for Christmas! Amy takes us through the role of cognitive development in believing Santa and how to guarantee the best chance of winning a Christmas cracker. Hunter talks about subjective well-being - what makes some of us feel better after Christmas and others worse? We finish off with two things we came across. This week it's the practice habits of Peppa Pig's Dr Brown Bear and a new diagnostic criteria. Do you have Bond Adequacy Disorder (BAD)?

Amy's articles:

Belief in Santa - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0885201414000720

Christmas cracker victory - https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2014/201/11/surprising-benefit-passive-aggressive-behaviour-christmas-parties-being-crowned

Hunter's article:

Subjective well-being at Christmas - https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11482-015-9441-8 

Things we came across:

Dr Brown Bear - http://www.bmj.com/content/359/bmj.j5397

Bond Adequacy Disorder - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26654618

20 - Ten things: Middle children, yoga or aerobics, partners look like your mum, Barbie dolls, cat personality, dancing, diagnosing Gollum, swearing, sleeping positions & city disorders.

20 - This pod is a 10 item Things We Came Across Special to celebrate our 20th episode (like what we did for the 10th episode - but with less Star Wars). We talk about 10 different and unusual psychology research papers. Hunter's papers run the gamete of asking whether middle children are socially more advanced, which parent physical characteristics do we find attractive in potential partners (creepy), discusses cat personality traits, what diagnosis Gollum from Lord of the Rings has (nerd alert), and what predicts couples initial sleeping positions. Meanwhile Amy tackles the topics of which type of exercise is best for mood (seeking confirmatory bias for yoga), the depressing research on what playing with Barbie does to girls career aspirations, why theory of mind and dancing are linked, why is it good to swear when socially excluded, and finishes with a discussion on disorders named after cities.  

Hunter's articles

Face preferences (Do I like my partner because he looks like my dad?): http://www.ehbonline.org/article/S1090-5138(15)00059-8/fulltext

Birth order and cooperativeness (do middle children rule?): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjdp.12180/full

What is Gollum's diagnosis : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC535969

Cat personality: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376635716303308?via%3Dihub

Sleep positions (don't touch me! or lets cuddle): https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/IJoDR/article/view/32590

Amy's articles

Exercise (Amy attempts to show yoga is better than aerobics) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27514246

Barbie dolls and career aspirations in girls  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-014-0347-y

Dancing and theory of mind http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cdev.12314/abstract

Swearing, pain and social exclusion  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejsp.2264/abstract

Disorders named after cities http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1179/0027773814Z.00000000087?journalCode=ynam20


19 - Do you worry in social situations? A look at social anxiety disorder

19 - This week we have an in-depth chat about social anxiety disorder - which is when people find social situations difficult and worrying, so much so that people avoid them. Social anxiety disorder is a really interesting problem that is surprisingly common. The discussion on this pod illustrates many key concepts in how psychologists understand and treat anxiety (and mood) problems. So it should be a good pod to listen to if you are generally interested in what psychologists do. We talk about social anxiety in adolescents, how it relates to feeling shame and being self-critical in adults, the relationship between anger suppression and social anxiety, and finish up talking about CBT and mindfulness as treatments for social anxiety. In Things We Came Across Hunter continues with his discussion about mortality rates in hospitals - this time asking the question what happens when cardiologist go to a conference, Amy ends by discussing magic and cognitive ability.  

Amy's articles:

Social adaptation in adolescence. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11218-011-9164-0

Social anxiety and anger suppression. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21636245

Hunter's articles: 

Social anxiety and shame proneness - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25196782

RCT CBT vs mindfulness - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005796717301183?via%3Dihub


Mortality when cardiologists are at a conference: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25531231

Magic tricks and cognition. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4351568/ 

18 - Lettuce talk about vegetarians and vegans

18 - This week, Two Shrinks Pod is going green with a chat about the psychological aspects of following a meat free diet. We talk about eating disorders, anxiety and how smarter kids tend to be vegetarians in adulthood. We also ponder whether eating meat is associated with masculinity and question how prejudiced Western culture is towards vegans and vegetarians. To wrap up, Amy blames Hunter for her current earworm and soothes herself with research about how other people experience songs stuck in their heads. Then Hunter talks us through the most dangerous month to visit a hospital in the US. 


Hunter's articles:


Bias towards vegetarians

Eating disorders

IQ in childhood

Amy's articles:

Stress and anxiety

Bias among vegans & vegetarians

Masculinity and meat-free diets

Things we came across:

Earworms - stuck song syndrome (Amy)

The July Effect (Hunter)


17 - What makes you creative?

17 - Continuing with our mini-series of non-clinical topics we discuss five articles on creativity. We focus on 'little c' creativity - that is - creativity in everyday situations. Looking at how emotions, personality, brain organisation, bipolar disorder and children's play are all related to creativity. In Things We Came Across we discuss whether left handers remember dreams and digest the science behind food cravings. 

Amy's articles

Everyday creativity:

Creativity and bipolar disorder: 

Creativity and children's play:

Hunter's articles

Everyday creativity - Warsaw study:

Creativity and Handedness:



Food cravings:


Handedness and dream recall:


16 - Sorry it's late - our pod on procrastination

16 - For this week's pod we read five articles on procrastination - and in the process had our own procrastination activated which delayed the episode being completed by a week (#irony). We talk about procrastination which is something we have all struggled with.  Discussing it in various settings and how it relates to personality, our estimates of time, and how it interferes with doing aversive and pleasurable tasks. We finish with a discussion of academic spam emails and ponder the relationship between smells and memories.

Amy's articles

Procrastination, personality & academic performance: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886916312016

Procrastination across the age range: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0148054

Procrastination and the dark triad: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886914000105

Hunter's articles

Atlast my article on procrastination: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0092656686901273

Procrastination of enjoyable experiences: http://journals.ama.org/doi/abs/10.1509/jmkr.47.5.933?code=amma-site&journalCode=jmkr


academic spam: http://www.bmj.com/content/355/bmj.i5383

smells and memory: https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/BF03193837




15 - Hoarders and Hoarding disorder

15 - This week we talk about people who hoard things (objects, animals) so much so that it causes them distress and disrupts their day to day lives. Hoarding disorder has only recently been recognised as a distinct disorder and so we discuss some of the research into what makes someone more likely to hoard, as well as how to treat this disorder. As usual we end up with our "Things we came across" segment, Amy goes dark with discussion about Trolling on Tinder, whilst Hunter goes light by talking about psychologists and reality tv (as well as a lot of discussion of Survivor). 

Amy's articles:

Anthropomorphism and Hoarding: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886912004898

Characteristics of people who hoard animals: http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fa0023484

Trolling on Tinder and the dark tetrad: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886917300260

Hunter's articles 

Intolerance of distress and uncertainty in hoarding: 

Group CBT for Hoarding:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26750388

Psychologists in Reality TV: https://www.psychology.org.au/Content.aspx?ID=8046

14 - The new normal post cancer treatment

14 - This week's pod is a talk that Hunter gave at Leukaemia Foundation Day in 2013. The talk is about some of the challenges people face when diagnosed, being treated for and recovering from cancer. The core principles of this talk should be applicable to most people as Hunter talks about how to deal with anxiety, changes life circumstances, and how to get the most out of the short time we have. It will also be of interest to anyone who has or had cancer, or knows someone who has, it should also be interesting to listen too to understand how psychologists think about and tackle complex problems that life throws up. 

If you or anyone you know has a blood cancer and would like to receive support please call 1800 620 420 or visit www.leaukaemia.org.au. If you or someone you know would like to support the Leukaemia Foundation in raising much needed funds please call 1800 500 088 – it is always the right time to donate to a cancer charity.


Staring at the Sun (Yalom) https://www.bookdepository.com/Staring-at-Sun-Irvin-D-Yalom/9780749928780

Reinventing your life : https://www.bookdepository.com/Reinventing-Your-Life-Jeffrey-E-Young-Janet-S-Klosko/9780452272040?ref=grid-view&qid=1504760604784&sr=1-1

Human side of cancer: https://www.bookdepository.com/Human-Side-of-Cancer-J--Lewis-S-Holland/9780060930424?ref=grid-view&qid=1504760634489&sr=1-1


13 - Very Superstitious

13 - For lucky number 13 we thought we'd take a look at some of the research into superstitions and how these manifest in various areas of our lives. We talk about how having someone tell you something is lucky increases your performance, discuss superstitious behaviours of top European sportspersons, ponder superstitious and paranormal beliefs, marvel at the differences in superstitions of gamblers in South Korean casinos, and see how superstitions affect the Russian real estate market. 

We finish up with a rather relaxed discussion (thanks Artemis Gin http://www.artemisgin.com.au) on the effects of alcohol references in music on drinking behaviour and argue about whether men or women assemble Ikea furniture better.  

Amy's articles: 

Superstition and performance: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20511389

Paranormal beliefs: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810016304548

Real estate: http://journal.sjdm.org/15/151009/jdm151009.html

Alcohol & lyrics: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21999498

Hunter's articles:

Sportspeople: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00116.x/abstract

Gamblers: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14459795.2016.1182569

Sex differences in assembly of Ikea furniture: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acp.3182/full